Oxford is a residential town located in western New Haven County, Connecticut, United States. The population was 12,683 at the 2010 Census. Oxford is the 26th wealthiest town in Connecticut by median household income. Distinct settled areas in the town include Oxford Center, Quaker Farms, and Riverside. Oxford belongs to the Naugatuck Valley Economic Development Region and the Central Naugatuck Valley Planning Area, and the BridgeportStamfordNorwalkMetropolitan Statistical Area. In the 18th century, farmers herded livestock through Oxford from as far away as Litchfield on the way to the port of New Haven. In the 19th century, the town lost population as farmers moved to work in better-paying factories.