New Haven is the second-largest city in Connecticut after Bridgeport and the sixth-largest in New England with a population at the 2010 United States Census of 129,779 people. According to a census done by the Census Bureau as of July 1, 2012, the city had a population of 130,741. New Haven is the principal municipality in Greater New Haven, which had a total population of 862,477 in 2010. It is located on New Haven Harbor on the northern shore of the Long Island Sound in New Haven County, which in turn comprises a part of the New York metropolitan area. New Haven was founded in 1638 by English Puritans, and a year later eight streets were laid out in a four-by-four grid, creating what is now commonly known as the "Nine Square Plan", now recognized by the American Institute of Certified Planners as a National Planning Landmark. The central common block is New Haven Green, a 16-acre (6ha) square, now a National Historic Landmark and the center of Downtown New Haven. New Haven is the home of the Ivy League school Yale University. The university is an integral part of the city's economy, being New Haven's biggest taxpayer and employer, Health care (hospitals and biotechnology), professional services (legal, architectural, marketing, and engineering), financial services, and retail trade also help to form an economic base for the city. The city served as co-capital of Connecticut from 1701 until 1873, when sole governance was transferred to the more centrally-located city of Hartford. New Haven has since billed itself as the "Cultural Capital of Connecticut" for its supply of established theaters, museums, and music venues.